In recent blogs I have been looking at different elements of the human brain – not because I’m a wanna be neuroscientist but because I am interested to learn what brain science can tell us about creating and delivering effective learning.
So far I’ve looked at the reptilian and mammalian brains.
It’s time to look at our third, evolutionarily youngest, brain:
The Pre-Frontal Cortex (PFC)
Our PFC is the large area of the brain situated at the front of our brain and it takes most of the frontal lobes in the right and left hemispheres. This is the part of our brain that gives us much of our intelligence and problem solving abilities.
I rediscovered this as I was doing some tidying up, c/ Mahatma Ghandi
Most organisational learning involves an experience of identity.
I'm talking about our work role identity which is defined in documents such as position descriptions, organisational vision and mission statements, policies and procedures.
Organsaitonal job descriptions, policies and procedures go some way to helping workers understand the work they are expected to do and the organisations expectations of their role.
But these documents can be a long way from the reality of bringing that role to life. it is the person in the role who does that.
And they bring all of their beliefs, thoughts, words, action, habits and values into the role.
Our role in organisational learning and development is to help our people to learn how to bring themselves into the role and how to bring the role into themselves.
Neurons are the basis of all learning. It is the electrical firings and chemical messages (neurotransmitters) that run between neurons, the neural pathways, which produce our thoughts, feelings and interactions with our world.
Hebb's rule: The neurons that fire together wire together
Named after pioneering Canadian neurologist, Donald O. Hebb – one of the founding fathers of neuroscience, Hebb’s rule states that when two neurons fire together regularly or fire once with significant intensity, their connection is strengthened and they are more likely to fire together in future to the detriment of connections with other neurons.
This action forms the basis of learning.
We learn through repetition and recognition. Repetition creates well developed brain patterns (connections between neurons). Learning to drive a car is often used as a way of explaining learning in terms of moving from unconscious incompetence to unconscious competence. That transition from unconscious incompetence to unconscious competence is about the building of new neural pathways and the more you practice the easier driving a car becomes until you don't have to think about it when you're doing it.
Some quick facts about neurons
How many neurons make a human brain? Billions fewer than we thought
Turns out we still don't really know. Interesting that the generally accepted number is 100 billion however this article refutes that. And in the video below, The Woman Who Changed Her Brain, Barbara Arrowsmith-Young states we have 200 billion. I think the most important point for learning and development practitioners, is just to appreciate the enormity and complexity of the neurone numbers involved.
How We Learn – Synapses and Neural Pathways
The best explanation I have found about the physicality of how the brain learns comes from Lord Robert Winston, Professor of Science and Society and Emeritus Professor of Fertility Studies at Imperial College London:
When we learn, we are rewiring our brains: creating new neural pathways, reinforcing existing pathways and pruning others.
The brains ability to change in response to our experiences, its ability to learn.
The Woman Who Changed Her Brain: Barbara Arrowsmith-Young at TEDxToronto:
How do you want your learners to feel?
Engaged? Enthusiastic? Energised? Confident? Willing to have a go?
When our learners come to our learning and development programs we want them to learn.
This sounds like I’m stating the obvious and I have seen many trainers and facilitators focus on the content too much and assume that the learners are in the right emotional state for learning, they’re ready to go. So they launch head first in to the content via a fairly standard opening eg these are the objectives, this is the agenda, here are the ground rules…now lets get started.
But creating a true learning environment is not as simple as that. People are emotional beings. They lead busy lives and are usually juggling multiple competing priorities.
We want to get to: the learner’s executive brain, their prefrontal cortex
Our emotional brain, the limbic system.
Our emotional brain, the limbic system, is an ancient part of the human brain.
It supports a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory and olfaction.
Some basics about the Limbic system:
To give learning a chance you need to make sure your learners feel safe.
They need to feel that they can admit to what they don’t know, share what they do know (be valued), be able to have their thinking challenged, feel uncomfortable some of the time (without wanting to run away) and know that they can take the risks they need to be able to learn.
Our Lizard Brain
This is the oldest part of the human brain, our most primal brain.
Controls the body’s vital functions eg heart rate, breathing, body temperatuve and balance.
It includes the main structures found in a reptiles brain: the brainstem and the cerebellum.
Our lizard brain protects us from threat and seeks reward - it helps us to decide what is significant at any point in time.
Take care of your learners lizard brain.
Learning by its very nature involves making mistakes and many people have great trouble doing this. We are taught that making mistakes is bad – people will laugh at us, we think we will lose credibility, it makes us feel uncomfortable.
Mistakes are our friends because they help us to learn and grow. Mistakes can also help us to learn to be kind to ourselves and to other people – they are a very real part of being human. We all do it so no need to point and laugh at others.
Don’t let your emotional brain take over, don’t beat yourself up when you make a mistake. - learn and move on.
We are all FLAWSOME – we can all make mistakes and still be awesome J
The word ‘flawsome’ comes to you from the 17th IAF Asia Conference Singapore 2014 – thank you J
Confidence - found this interesting article about the neuroscience of self-compassion
On Tuesday 12 August I had the privilege of attending the pre-Conference workshop:
P3: SPACE: Five Steps for OD Workshop integrating the best of AI, Future Search, the World Café and OST with Kazu Katori and Max Watanabe
In this rapid changing and complicated business environment, traditional leadership and management practices no longer work effectively. New approaches to create vital and agile organization are needed. The answer to this challenge is Five Steps for OD Workshop to embrace the best of people and organizations, which is founded on a group of workshop metrics called the Whole Systems Approach including Appreciative Inquiry, Future Search, The World Cafe, and Open Space Technology. The five steps are:
The workshop was informative, engaging and gave me a lot to think about how I could use this approach in my work. It was evident Katori San and Watanabe San have a deep understanding of each discipline that makes up SPACE and that this approach they have developed is grounded in their significant knowledge and experience.
My favourite quote of the day:
‘Groups and organisations are not machines, they are living creatures’.
Here are my notes:
The common approach to OD: change management, deficit-based analytical organisational development approach, deficit-based human relationships building.
Often bring consultants in who come with pre-determined solution
Often a painful process for the people – it becomes a matter of endurance. The thinking being that given enough time if people endure, change will occur. But for how long? How effectively?
OD can change whole organisations, a whole system approach works better for changing cultures
VUCA: we live in an era of Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity
No single person knows the right answer. It’s important for all the members of the system to share the dream
SPACE helps people suspend ordinary thinking and shift mental models
Set the context
How would you describe your current work environment?
Prepare for shift
Timeline activity – Global, Local, Personal. What stories did we find? What implications for the current situation of our organisational/team?
Story telling: telling our story to our table group about the organisations or teams we are working with. The rest of the group were tasked as listeners and took notes on post it notes (trying to find causes of success, one word per note) to give feedback to the storyteller– changing mental model from deficits to focussing on strengths. For me this was a very humbling experience
Aspiring for change
We did a team drawing to express our ideal future together
A critical part, without it nothing will happen
Make a list of actions for what you can do to make this happen
Decide as a team three main actions you will do
Where I think SPACE really shines is that it recognises that to take a group or organisation from the issue/problem/change they want to address to being able to enact that change needs different approaches at different stages of the journey.
In creating SPACE, Katori San and Watanabe San have created a whole systems approach, a framework, that enables facilitators to knowingly use the most appropriate facilitation technique for the stage that the group is at so they can get the best results for the organisation and it’s people.